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Three core types of fishing: Shore, Sport, and Bottom. Note that the water gets deep VERY fast here, so trolling and bottom fishing trips are usually within a few miles of the shoreline or less. If you fish bottom from boat or shore, expect to loose lures and weights due to the rocky/coral bottom and plan accordingly (i.e. pull up off the bottom, make break away rigs, limit lead use).
Shore fishing includes dunking (using bait), and whipping(using lures). I added Fly Fishing to the shoreline pile too. Since you don't need a license to fish in the ocean, and there are MANY beaches and shoreline access spots, shoreline fishing is a good activity if you already are near the water anyhow. If you need a guide, this guy has a good site and seems to be on the ball, though I didn't use him. It is mostly an ultra-light game of 8lb spinning gear, 1/4oz silver kastmasters and similar sized jigs and spoons, with some surface action at good times on florescent yellow surface poppers. Squid seemed to be a good bait, though I just focused on the kastmasters and flies. The beaches near Maalaea Bay (the boardwalk area) were good on calmer days and evenings for coronetfish, goatfish, wrasses, and the like, though I saw small bonefish and other fishes cruising along the shore. There are mole shrimp and fiddler crabs, and small (1 inch) silversides. On the north side I had very small trevally and needlefish harrass my white streamer flies. Most of my fishing on the shore was 'opportunity' fishing since the trip was not a specific fishing trip. Some areas are QUITE DANGEROUS to wade or walk on. Lava rock can saw-edged when dry, and super-slippery when wet. Cliffs are very dangerous and every year a few fishermen are lost forever from them. There are a few bait and tackle stores (try them first: West Maui Sports and Fishing Supply and New Maui Fishing Supply and All About Fish for example, ask them for advice too...wish I did), but the 'Marts and 'Authority carry gear too, and the grocery stores carry squid and shrimp that can be used for bait.
Bottom fishing (by boat): We both fished on the bottom fishing trip on the Aloha Blue Charter Hokua which was VERY un-crowded and worth every penny. If you want to have lots of elbow room, they are reallly good. (We liked them enough to take them on a snorkelling trip too). The crew was professional, knowledgable, patient, and attentive, the boat clean and well equipped (with a restroom with a flush toilet and sink), including POG, ice water, and lemonade on tap (and provided at any request too). They played reggae and other tunes at a very low level on the ship's speaker system. The reefs targeted were toward Lahaina, in 130 feet to 60 feet of water, and the boat trolled to each spot (see sport fishing, below). For bottom fishing, they provided Penn 5500 series spinning reels and ugly stick rods, set up for 15lb mono with a 2 hook rig on 17lb florocarbon with a rubber-band attached 6oz weight, and squid for bait. My wife caught many wrasses, trevally, snappers, and goatfish on the provided gear, and others nailed jobfish, snappers, goatfish, and filefish. The crew biologist identified fish and carefully released undersized and unneeded fish carefully. We had the option of keeping our catch, filleted for our use, but we released them instead (no oven or grill in the hotel). I caught bluefinned trevaly pretty regularly on my own gear (40lb superbraid on a spinning reel and travel boat rod) using a Williamson Benthos 3.5oz chartruese glow jig on rod-length 20lb florocarbon leader (and barbless single hook). Other colors a no-go, though I would bet a jighead/softplastic would also be deadly. Can't say enough about how much we liked the Aloha Blue Charters Hokua crew and boat. I have fished everywhere on boats all over, and they are a class act.
Sportfishing: Sportfishing for us was on the bottom fishing and snorkelling trips between spots, but the rigs were standard for Hawaii: Penn International 50/80lb class gear, chrome jet head 8" to 14" lures in blue/green/purple, outriggers, and a Hawaiian downrigger setup. Was a 5 rod spread, 2 on the 'riggers, two hawaiian downriggers with wire line, 2lb weights and cone head trolling lures, and a far out rod set way back. While this trip was during a full moon/high pressure day (so no bites, I didn't expect any given the conditions), they say they have a 75% hit rate on the trolling gear. Dedicated sportfishing charters out of the same harbor got a few wahoo (ono). I advised they set a shotgun rod out next time too (close, in the wake, a large black/purple jet head or trembler style lure).